Christopher T. Leffler, MD, MPH

Resume / Curriculum Vitae.



Downtown: Virginia Commonwealth University,Medical College Virginia Campus,Department of Ophthalmology P.O. Box 980438, 403 North 11th Street Suite 439, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0438 FAX – (804) 828-1010

At Stony Point Surgery Center: 8700 Stony Point Parkway, Suite 220, Richmond, VA 23235

Email address (remove four “X”‘s added to fool spammers): chrislefXflermXd@gmaXil.cXom.

To make an appointment: (804)828-9315.

or Virginia Toll Free: 1(800)393-3711.

If the date given by the call center is unacceptable (too far in the future), just ask to be connected with my technician, explain your situation, and she can get you in to see me sooner.

We can see patients the same day for urgent problems.


Oct 1, 2006-present. Assistant Professor. Department of Ophthalmology. Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Richmond, VA, and Staff Physician, the McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, VA. Director of Scholarly Activity.

2003-Sep 30, 2006. Clinical Instructor. Department of Ophthalmology. Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Richmond, VA, and Staff Physician, the McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, VA.

2004-Sep 30, 2006. Ophthalmology, private practice, 1510 N. 28th St., Suite 208, Richmond, VA 23223.

Oct 2003-Sep 2004. Fellow in pediatric ophthalmology and adult strabismus. Department of Ophthalmology. Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Richmond, VA, and Staff Physician, the McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, VA.

Oct 2000-Sep 2003. Resident Ophthalmologist. Department of Ophthalmology. Medical College of Virginia. Richmond, VA.

1997-2000. Medical Director, NeuroMetrix, Inc. Cambridge, MA.

1999-2000 Occupational Medicine Physician. 1) Occupational Health and Rehabilitation, Wellesley and Wilmington, MA (7/99-1/00). 2) Occupational Health Services, Morton Hospital, Taunton, MA (2/00-9/00).

1997-1999. Occupational Medicine Residency, Chief Resident, Dept. of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health.

1994-1997. Diving Medical Officer and Medical Department Head, Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit Two. Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek, VA.

1994. Naval Undersea Medical Institute, Groton, CT. Training as Undersea Medical Officer.

1993-1994. Intern, Internal Medicine, Naval Hospital Oakland, CA.

1989-1993. MD Degree, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard-M.I.T. Division of Health Sciences and Technology.

1985-1989. BS Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.




Leffler CT, Vaziri K, Cavuoto KM, McKeown CA, Schwartz SG, Kishor KS, Pariyadath A. Strabismus Surgery Reoperation Rates with Adjustable and Conventional Sutures. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 May 19. pii: S0002-9394(15)00299-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2015.05.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Leffler CT, Janot AC. Postoperative Visual Acuity Should Be Reported in Studies of Binocular Summation. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Hadi TM, Salman A, Vasuki V. The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD). Clin Ophthalmol. 2015;9:207-15.

Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Grzybowski A, Braich PS. The first cataract surgeons in Anglo-America. Surv Ophthalmol. 2015;60(1):86-92.

Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Davenport B, Randolph J, Busscher J, Hadi T. Enduring influence of Elizabethan ophthalmic texts of the 1580s: Bailey, Grassus, and Guillemeau. Open Ophthalmol J. 2014;8:12-8.

Schwartz SG, Leffler CT. Uses of the word “macula” in written English, 1400-present. Surv Ophthalmol. 2014 Nov-Dec;59(6):649-54.

Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Davenport B. Congenital cataract surgery during the early Enlightenment period and the Stepkins oculists. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(7):883-4.

Leffler CT, Giliberti FM, Vasuki V. Cataract extraction and the iris configuration. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jun;120(6):e29-30.

Yang H, Leffler CT. Hybrid Dendrimer Hydrogel/Poly(Lactic-Co-GlycolicAcid) Nanoparticle Platform: An Advanced Vehicle for Topical Deliveryof Antiglaucoma Drugs and a Likely Solution to Improving Complianceand Adherence in Glaucoma Management. J Ocul Pharmacol Therap.2013 Mar;29(2):166-72.

Leffler CT, Schwartz S, Stackhouse R, Byrd Davenport B, Spetzler K.Evolution and impact of eye and vision terms in written English. JAMAOphthalmol 2013 [in press].

Parikh R, Leffler CT. Loop suture technique for optional adjustment in strabismus surgery. Middle East African J Ophthalmol 2013;20(3):225-228.

Leffler CT, Randolph J, Stackhouse R, Davenport B, Spetzler K. Monteath’s Translation of Weller: An Underappreciated Trove of Ophthalmology Lexicon. Arch Ophthalmol 2012; 130(10):1356-1357.

Pradhan S, Leffler CT, Wilkes M, Mahmood MA. Iris configuration and the intraocular pressure after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 2012;38:117-23.

Leffler CT, Wilkes M, Reeves J, Mahmood MA. Postoperative refraction in the second eye having cataract surgery. ISRN Ophthalmology 2011 [Full text Link].

Leffler CT, Wilkes M, Reeves J, Mahmood MA. Postoperative astigmatism in the second eye undergoing cataract surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 2011;129:295-300.

Leffler CT, Davenport B, Chan D. Frequency and seasonal variation of ophthalmology-related internet searches. Can J Ophthalmol 2010;45:274-9. [Link to full text pdf]

Leffler CT. Studies of monocular trials of glaucoma medications: conflicting results explained by varying methods. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127:707-8.

Leffler CT.Methodologic aspects of glaucoma pharmacogenomic studies.Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127:706.

Leffler CT, Hennessy A, Farukhi YZ. Current state of the one-eye trial of glaucoma medications. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2008;36(5):492-493.

Leffler CT, Davenport B, Rentz J, Miller A, Benson W. Clinical predictors of the optimal spectacle correction for comfort performing desktop tasks. Clin Exp Optom 2008; 91:530-7.

Leffler CT, Javey G, Mahmood MA. Prediction of postoperative astigmatism in cataract surgery. Canadian J Ophthalmol 2008;43:551-4. Abstract with Full Text LinkFull text pdf

Leffler C, Pradhan S, Nguyen N. Refraction after intraocular lens exchange. Ophthalmology 2008;115:754. Full Text

Leffler CT. Visual impairment. In: Accardo PJ (ed). Developmental disabilities in infancy and childhood. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. Balto., MD 2007. pp 501-520. Full Text

Leffler CT, Amini L. Interpretation of uniocular and binocular trials of glaucoma medications. BMC Ophthalmology 2007;7:17. Full Text

Schwartz SG, Puckett BJ, Allen RC, Castillo IG, Leffler CT. Beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and clinical efficacy of betaxolol hydrochloride in normal volunteers. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:2131-6.

Wu TT, Amini L, Leffler CT, Schwartz SG. Cataracts and cataract surgery in mentally retarded adults. Eye Contact Lens. 2005;31:50-3.

Phan L, Leffler CT, Allen RC, Schwartz SG, Karandikar AP. Effect of turning the head nasally on the visual field. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004. [ARVO abstract]

Trivedi AM, Wu TT, Leffler CT, Schwartz SG. Ocular Trauma and Surgical Repair Among Prison Inmates. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2003. [ARVO abstract]

Chavis PS, Castillo IG, Schwartz SG, Leffler CT, Kishor K, Allen RC. Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003. [ARVO abstract]

Singh V, Leffler CT, Schwartz SG. Diabetic retinopathy, photocoagulation, and factors predictive of vision loss. [Abstract, presented at American Society of Retina Specialists, 21st Annual Meeting, 2003].

Hess DB, Leffler CT, Schwartz SG, Wright JD, Allen RC. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity, 1997-2001. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002. [ARVO abstract]

Wu TT, Leffler CT, Pastel DA, Schwartz SG, Allen RC. Ophthalmic Care for Prison Inmates. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2002. [ARVO abstract]

Leffler CT. Effect of ambient temperature on the risk of decompression sickness in surface decompression divers. Aviat Space Environ Med 2001;72:477-83.

Leffler CT, Gozani SN, Cros D. Median neuropathy at the wrist: diagnostic utility of clinical findings and an automated electrodiagnostic device. J Occup Environ Med 2000;42:398-409.

Leffler CT, Hu H. Other Physical Hazards. In: Levy BS, Wegman DH (eds). Occupational Health: Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease and Injury. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. New York. 2000. p 379-397.

Leffler CT, Gozani SN, Nguyen ZQ, Cros D. An automated electrodiagnostic technique for detection of carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology 2000;3a:2-9.

Leffler CT, Philippi AF, Leffler SG, Mosure JC, Kim PD. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Military Medicine 1999;164:85-91. Full Text

Leffler CT, Milton DK. Occupational Asthma and Contact Dermatitis in a Spray Painter after Introduction of an Aziridine Cross-Linker. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107:599-601. Abstract with Full Text Link

Leffler CT. Effect of ambient temperature on the risk of decompression sickness in surface decompression divers (abstract). Undersea Hyperbar Med 1999;26 (Suppl): 16.

Leffler CT, Dembert ML. Posttraumatic stress symptoms among U.S. Navy divers recovering TWA Flight 800. J Nervous Mental Dis 1998;186:566-9. Full Text

Leffler CT, White JC. Recompression treatments during the recovery of TWA Flight 800. Undersea Hyper Med 1997;24:301-8.

Leffler CT. High-altitude hyperbaric operations at 3800 meters in Bolivia (abstract). Undersea Hyperbaric Med Soc 1997;24(Suppl):14.

Leffler CT. Diving medicine on a major recovery operation: TWA Flight 800 (abstract). Undersea Hyperbaric Med Soc 1997;24(Suppl):21.

Leffler CT, Saul JP. Computer model of the atrioventricular node predicts reentrant arrhythmias. PACE 1994;17:113-130.

Leffler CT, Saul JP, Cohen RJ. Rate-related and autonomic effects on atrioventricular conduction assessed through beat-to-beat PR interval and cycle length variability. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1994;5:2-15.

Eiselt M, Curzi-Dascalova L, Leffler C, Christova E. “Sigh-related heart rate changes during sleep in premature and full-term newborns”. Neuropediatrics 1992;23(6):286-91.

Clairambault J, Curzi-Dascalova L, Kauffmann F, Medigue C, Leffler C. “Heart rate variability in normal sleeping full-term and preterm neonates.” Early Human Development 1992;28(2):169-83.


June 2011. Instructor of the Year. Department of Ophthalmology. Virginia Commonwealth University, 2010-2011.

November 1996. Navy Commendation Medal and Navy Unit Commendation Medal for service as Diving Medical Officer during the recovery of TWA Flight 800.

May 1993. Young Investigator Award for basic science, North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, San Diego, CA.